Workers’ Compensation Laws and Requirements by State

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Workers' compensation insurance is vital protection for both employers and employees. This insurance policy covers medical expenses, lost wages, and other benefits for employees who suffer work-related injuries or occupational diseases. However, the laws and regulations regarding workers' compensation insurance vary from state to state. Therefore, employers need to understand the requirements in their state to ensure compliance and avoid potential penalties.

The first step in navigating workers' compensation insurance requirements is determining your state’s requirements. Most states require employers to carry workers' compensation insurance depending on the number of employees, with a few exceptions for certain industries. The only state that does not require companies to purchase workers’ compensation coverage is Texas. Some states require coverage to be purchased from a state-run workers’ compensation plan, these are called monopolistic states and include Ohio, Wyoming, Washington, and North Dakota.

Rules of Workers' Compensation: Variations and Regulations by State

Each state determines the Workers' Compensation statutes for the employers in their state. Another program protecting employees is the federal program for Workers' Compensation, known as FECA, which only applies to federal employees.

For the maritime industry, there is the United States Longshore and Harbor Worker program (USL&H). The United States Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act is a federal law that provides workers' compensation benefits to employees who work on or near navigable waters of the United States, including harbors, docks, piers, wharves, and other waterfront facilities. 

However, it does not apply to sailors, masters, or crew members of any vessel or ship. These individuals are covered by another federal law, the Jones Act, which provides compensation to sailors who are injured on the job.

The workers' compensation insurance variations by state include the rules for business types (Corporations, Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies, and Sole Proprietors) and if the officers, partners, members, and proprietors can be included or exempt from workers comp coverage. Also, the number of employees that trigger coverage requirements in each state differs. Each state has its own laws, statutes, and courts that handle legal issues while respecting federal rights.

State-by-state comparisons of workers' comp requirements are available for business owners, along with additional resources and links to each state's insurance department, workers' comp commission, and other state worker's compensation agencies.

In addition to determining whether coverage is required, employers must also understand the specific requirements for their state. These requirements may include the following:

Coverage Limits

The workers' compensation coverage does not have policy limits. The Employers’ Liability coverage included with Worker’s Compensation policies have limits listed. Workers’ Compensation coverage does not have a maximum limit payable.


Some states may exempt certain businesses or industries from workers' compensation insurance requirements. Some typical professions that are exempted from having coverage include real estate agents, domestic help, and farming.


The minimum and maximum payable benefit for loss of income under workers' compensation varies from state to state. In Florida, the maximum has been at $275 for years, while another state like Pennsylvania has a maximum of $1,273. Insurers are required to provide state-mandated benefits for their insureds’ employees.

Filing Requirements

Employers may be required to file various forms and reports with their insurer or the state regarding their workers' compensation insurance coverage, often within a specific time limit. These requirements may include initial filings, annual reports, and claims reports. Penalties for late filing can be steep.


Employers who fail to comply with workers' compensation insurance requirements may be subject to various penalties, including fines, liabilities, and legal action.

Employers must also understand the process for filing workers' compensation insurance claims. Employees who suffer work-related injuries or occupational disease must report the incident to their employer immediately upon discovery. The employer must then file a claim with their insurance provider, who will investigate the claim and determine whether it is covered under the policy.

Employers should clearly understand their responsibilities in the event of a workplace injury or occupational disease. This may include providing immediate medical attention, calling an ambulance, or transporting the employee for care, reporting the incident to the insurance provider, and cooperating with the claim investigation.

One of the most critical aspects of navigating workers' compensation insurance is selecting the right health care provider. Employers should first check with their insurance company because some states have a managed care network for work comp claims and only those providers can be utilized. In return, the insured may receive a policy credit. Start with your insurer to research providers in your area. These providers have been verified and have good track records in handling work comp claims.

To select the right insurance carrier, employers should also work closely with their insurance agents to ensure the coverage is placed with an experienced insurer that understands their state's specific requirements and regulations. An experienced agent can provide guidance and support throughout the process, helping employers navigate complex legal and regulatory issues.

Finally, employers must stay current on state workers' compensation insurance requirement changes. Laws and regulations regarding workers' compensation insurance can change frequently. Employers must be prepared to adapt to these changes to avoid potential penalties or legal action.

Employers can stay informed about changes to workers' compensation insurance requirements by subscribing to industry publications, state insurance newsletters, attending seminars and workshops, and working closely with their insurance agent.

Worker’s Compensation Miscellaneous Information

The general requirements for workers' compensation insurance include several considerations employers should consider when navigating the need for this policy and ongoing operations. These include:

Independent Contractors

Employers must understand the difference between employees and independent contractors in the scope of workers' compensation insurance. Independent contractors are not intended to be covered under the workers' compensation insurance policy held by whoever or whatever company they are doing work for. If they have not filed for an exemption, this could be problematic if the independent contractor gets hurt, and suddenly, that independent contractor claims to be an employee and wants to be covered. If you hire independents, get proof of exemptions, or require them to carry workers’ compensation coverage. Another issue with exempted independents is when they bring another worker to help, and that person is not exempt. If they get hurt, they will be looking for someone to foot the bill. 

Third-Party Liability

A third party may sometimes be harmed by an employee's work-related injury, a spouse or other family member. Employers should understand their liability in these situations and work with their insurance provider for adequate coverage.

Safety Measures

Employers should implement appropriate safety measures to reduce the risk of workplace injuries and occupational illnesses. Loss prevention measures may include providing training personal protective equipment, conducting regular site inspections using a checklist, and implementing workplace safety incentives.

Fraud Prevention

Workers' compensation insurance fraud is a significant issue that results in substantial losses for employers and insurance providers. Employers should implement appropriate fraud prevention measures, such as conducting thorough background checks and verifying injury claims.

Return-to-Work Programs

Employers should strive to have a return-to-work program to help injured employees return to work as quickly and safely as possible. These programs may include modified job duties, training, and rehabilitation services. 


Navigating workers' compensation insurance requirements can be a complex process. Still, employers must ensure compliance with the law and protect their employees. By understanding the specific laws of their state, selecting the right insurance provider, and staying up to date on changes to workers' compensation insurance rules and regulations, employers can provide essential protection for their employees and avoid potential legal and financial issues.